Remarks and Resources
As mentioned on the Putting it All Together page, there are more XHTML tags that we have not covered. A select few more will be introduced in later workshops, but mostly this is it.
If you are looking for “strict” compliance, then you should include what’s called a
DOCTYPE (Document Type) at the top of your document. The DOCTYPE tells the web browser which version of HTML (or XHTML) your page uses. The DOCTYPE for XHTML V. 1.0 Strict (what you now know) is:
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
And since XHTML is just a specialized form of XML, you should also indicate at the very top of your document which version of XML you’re using. XHTML is based on XML version 1.0. And unless you are writing web pages in foreign encodings (you would know if you were), you should specify your encoding as
UTF-8, the encoding for most of the world’s writing systems.
And finally, you should indicate in which language your page is written. This is indicated by the
lang attributes of the document’s
Combining all of these, a general “boiler plate” for an XHTML document is:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title></title> </head> <body> </body> </html>
To achieve some effects on the internet, namely frames and embedding Flash documents, it is necessary to use a different version of HTML. The syntax for other versions is exactly the same except for Element Tags which do not require the trailing
/ (so an
<img/> tag would be just
<img> in regular HTML as opposed to XHTML). More information on the different versions of HTML and when to use which version can be found on the W3C’s Page on DOCTYPEs.
Efficient Web Design
The above section gives a “boiler plate” HTML file that you can copy/paste into a new document again and again and never have to worry about looking up the crazy
DOCTYPE tags. This act of creating a boiler plate for your common files is a great way to speed up your design process.
The below sites are in no way affiliated or endorsed by the University or the Catalyst Workshops program. Rather, they are intended to provide you with additional perspectives on HTML and to further your understanding in areas that we may have glossed over. If you are interested in furthering your knowledge of HTML, these links might be a good place to start. Please continue to these resources at your own risk, as these sites are not under the purview of the University.